Review Definitions for Social Studies Final Exam 9R/9AR

 General Geography     Human Beginnings     Early Civilizations     Empires of the Middle East
 African Civilizations     India - Great Civilization     China's Civilizations     Islamic Civilization
 Central and East Asia     The Americas     Evolution of Civilization     Overseas Empires
 Age of Imperialism     Nationalism      Modern Asia      Modern Africa      Modern Middle East
 Modern Latin America     Global Interdependence     Vocabulary


Cultural Diffusion : The spreading outward of ideas from one culture to another. It is done through war, trade or missionary activity.

7 Factors that influence Climate: Land-Water relationship, Storms, Semi-permanent High and Low Pressure areas, Mountain Barriers, Ocean Currents, Latitude, Altitude

Archaeologist: A scientist that studies the material remains of man's past

sociologist: A social scientist that studies modern man; usually in groups

economist : The social scientist that studies money and its relationship to human activities

historian : Studies man's written past

nationalism: Strong feeling for your country

Geographic Isolation: When a culture is cut off from other cultures by natural barriers; little or no cultural diffusion takes place and the culture within develops uniquely.

nonaligned: When a nation does not sign agreements with either communist or noncommunist nations, but takes aid from both sides

leftists: People who believe in Marxian or communist ideas

aligned : Countries that sign agreements with certain nations and not others

capitalism: An economic theory based on the profit motive

Socialism: a political and economic theory based on government ownership of some important industries

imperialism: A stronger nation taking over a weaker one

subsistence: Producing just enough for yourself and your family; nothing is left over for sale

literacy: The ability to read & write

nomadic: People who travel from place to place

Traditional Village: Society is based in the tribal system, families are usually extended in nature, agriculture is subsistence

Crusades: A series of "Holy Wars" to take the middle East from the Turks, waged by the Christian European nations, They were a failure but the brought on the AGE OF EXPLORATION

Social Mobility:  Ability in a society to change social class; generally through education, effort, wealth, etc.

Melting Pot:  The blending together of more than one culture; found in the same geographic area

Age of Exploration:  Result of the Crusades and the demand for spices in Europe.  Began in the 1400's and carried European culture to the rest of the world

Cultural Unity:  When a society shares common elements like religion, history, traditions, etc.

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Paleolithic: The "Old Stone Age", the time before the Agricultural Revolution

Hunter-gatherer: People who travel from place to place hunting and gathering the food they need.

Neolithic Revolution: "New Stone Age", the time period of and after the Agricultural Revolution when people settled in one place and domesticated plants and animals, people become food producers, as food production increases; population increases

"Lucy": Early human remains found in the Great Rift Valley of Africa, She is the oldest, most complete best-preserved skeleton of any erect-walking human ancestor that has ever been found

Where humans began: It is believed they began in the Great Rift Valley area of Eastern Africa

Donald Johanson: In 1974, he discovered a 3.5 million-year-old fossil; nicknamed, "Lucy"

What did humans master first?: It is believed they mastered fire first

Specialization of labor: The development of skill in one area of work to such an extent that the person can use his skill to support himself [ indicates the beginning of the Urban Revolution- people living in communities]

domestication : The taming of plants & animals for human use

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Fertile Crescent: The land between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers where early Mesopotamian civilizations began, located where the modern nations of Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, & Iraq are found. the "Cradle of Civilization"

The oldest continuous civilization : China

Code of Hammurabi: Code of law, "an eye for an eye" ; let the punishment fit the crime

Pyramids of Egypt: built as tombs for the pharaohs

Barriers in Egypt: The Sahara Desert created geographic isolation

Theocracy: rule by a religious group

Ra: Important Egyptian god

Isis: important Egyptian goddess

pharaoh: priest-king, ruler of Egypt

Nile: Egypt is called the "Gift of the Nile" because of the predictable flooding.

Zhou Dynasty: China, feudal period, the time of the great philosophers [ ex. Confucius]

Shang Dynasty: China, developed the use of silk

Xia kingdom: 1st dynasty of China; exists in legend, little material evidence, [ founder Emperor Yu]

feudalism: a social, political, &economic system based on land and protection form the upper classes and service and obedience from the lower classes

Babylon: capital city of Babylonia, famous for its hanging gardens

Sumer: earliest civilization in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley

Mohenjo-Daro: earliest city ever found, located on the Indus River of modern day Pakistan, built on a grid pattern with sewers

Mandate of Heaven: Chinese political philosophy; Stated if a ruler fails to meet the needs of the people then the people may remove him

Divine Right of Kings: European political philosophy, Kings rule because God choose them to rule and NO ONE may question them.

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Phoenicians: lived on the coast of the Med. Sea near Lebanon, "carriers of civilization"; because of their trade they carried on a lot of cultural diffusion, also gave us our alphabet

Diaspora : Scattering of the Jews ; they were pushed out of the Middle East by the Romans

Torah: Holy  book for the Jews

polytheistic: belief in more than one god. animism, Shintoism, Hinduism, Buddhism etc.

monotheism: Belief in one god: Judaism, Christianity, Islam

Judaism: found in the Middle East, 1st monotheistic religion, Moses is one of the prophets, Torah is the holy book

Christianity: Founder Jesus; area the Middle East, 2nd monotheistic religion, holy book the Bible

Islam: founder was Mohammed, 3rd monotheistic religion, literally means "submission to God's will" ; based on the 5 Pillars

dynasty: rule by a family

Mesopotamia: early civilization of the Fertile Crescent or Tigris-Euphrates Valley

Babylonia: known for the hanging gardens

Sumer : early city  state

 Why were the first governments formed ?  So people could work together so they could build things a single person could not do, example the irrigation systems of the T-E Valley [city state]

Aryans: Invaders from central Asia that entered South Asia [Indian subcontinent] They brought the caste system and Hinduism, also the ancient language of Sanskrit

Hittites: The most warlike group in the Middle East area

Persians: settled in the area of modern day Iran

Egyptians: civilization formed along the Nile River

Castes of India: Top are the priests & teachers [ Brahmans]; next are the warriors, then the farmers and small businessmen, next the servant class and then the lowest [ so low they are outside the system are the untouchables. A person is born to a caste and can never change

Siddhartha Gautauma: founded Buddhism, based on the 4 Noble Truths, 1. life is full of pain, 2. greed causes this pain 3. end greed then you end pain 4. there is a way to end greed called the Eightfold Path

Jainism: polytheistic religion in India, don't kill any living thing

Hinduism: polytheistic religion founded in India by the Aryans, based on caste and reincarnation, the cow is sacred

Buddhism: polytheistic religion that began in India but died out there; it culturally diffused and became the predominate religion of Asia

Confucius: famous teacher in China; set up an ethical system based on self-control, loyalty, and respect

5 Relationships: basis of Confucian teachings
Man to Feudal Lord; Older brother to Younger brother, Husband to wife, Father to son, friend to friend .  The first is responsible for the second and the second owes obedience to the first

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savanna: grassland, 2 seasons one wet, one dry; covers 40% of the African continent

Ghana Empire: found in west Africa, its trade and wealth was based on salt

Matrilineal: family tree is traced on the mother's side

oral traditions: are the fables, songs, proverbs and other spoken traditions of a tribe or group

Bantu Migrations: caused by a climatic change [drought] moved south and eastward due to crop failures

city  states of East Africa: were multicultural because the Arabs, Persians, and other traders settled there

multicultural: cultural diffusion has taken place and you see aspects of many cultures in one geographic place

Great Zimbabwe: This is the culture that occupied south-central Africa; it was known for its great stone fortresses

Axum: was a city state of East Africa

Songhai: was an empire of west Africa

sahel: means grasslands of East Africa, this area in many places is turning to desert today [desertification]

plateau: is a land form that rises sharply from surrounding land forms at least on one side.  Africa is a series of plateaus that rise in elevation as you go from west to east

Mansa Musa: ruled the Empire of Mali in East Africa; an empire rich in gold

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Varna: caste

Veda: early Hindu text written in Sanskrit; holy book for Hinduism

Persian invasion of India:  Darius I in 518 BC conquered lands in the Indus Valley and Northern India [Punjab region]  The Persians ruled this area for about 200 years ; their courts and cities of Persians became centers of learning & culture [cultural Diffusion].  Persians were removed from India by Alexander the Great's invasion in 327 BC

Gupta: early Indian empire "Golden Age" founded by Chandragupta I about 310AD

Sanskrit: ancient language brought to India by the Aryans

Hindu beliefs: cow is sacred, reincarnation, polytheistic, the caste system

Aryan social system: caste, based on birth and occupation; never can change your caste

Katshatriya: warrior caste in the caste system

Brahman: the highest caste made up of priests & teachers

Sudra: the servant caste in the caste system

Buddhism and cultural diffusion:  Buddhism began in India and culturally diffused to the rest of Asia

Gupta Math:  they developed the principles of algebra, explained infinity and the concept of zero; they also developed Arabic numerals [#1 to 9]

monsoons: seasonal winds ; the summer monsoon is wet and comes off the Indian ocean, the winter monsoon is dry and comes from the mainland of Asia

earliest civilization location : in India was on the Indus River in modern day Pakistan

Mohenjo-Daro: Earliest city in the subcontinent of India ; built on the Indus River ; the city was planned on a grid pattern and even had sewers; located on the Arabian sea

Harappa: Early subcontinent civilization found in what is northern Pakistan today reached its height c.2500 to 1500 BC. Used pictographs, lacked a real written language, religion associated with nature

Basis of caste: Caste is based on birth and occupation

King Asoka: Began to rule about 274BC, conquered 2/3rds of the Indian subcontinent, converted to Buddhism and spread it to other areas, wrote laws on stone pillars and had them set up throughout the empire, called the ROCK EDICTS.

Mogul empire: set up by Babur; later Akbar his grandson ruled India, brought peace and order, encouraged religious tolerance, later Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal at Agra; traded with China and others; empire declined in the 1600's; empire based on Islam.

Karma: [fate] how a person lives his live determines his next life on the wheel of reincarnation

Dharma: The rules that every thing must follow in this life

reincarnation: the Hindu belief that the soul is reborn many times before it reaches union with the universal spirit

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Taoism [Daoism] : based on the teachings of Loazi; empathized the living in harmony with nature  polytheistic, had a deep influence on Chinese art, painting, poetry, 6th C.BC., belief in yin/yang,following nature's way = tranquil life

Legalism: rejected Confucian teachings, believed man was basically bad and had to be ruled strictly. justified the use of power and force; used by the Qin Dynasty; dictatorial in rule

animism: a polytheistic religion that believes everything has a spirit found in Japan's Shintoism & tribal religios of Africa

Buddhism: culturally diffused from India to China during the Han Dynasty; by the 400's was widely accepted in China

Great Wall: built by the Qin [Ch'in] Dynasty to prevent attack from the north, it was 4000 miles long, 300,oo peasants worked on it

Silk Road: linked East to west the most important trade route of the time period; important for cultural diffusion

5 Relationships: These relationships were based on loyalty, obligation and obedience; ruler to subject; parent to child; husband to wife; old to young; friend to friend. they were basis of Confucian teachings and included Filial piety: children's respect for parents& elders.

Han Society:  207BC Liu Pang overtrew the Qin; extended the Silk Road, 400 years of prosperity and stability civil service exams based on Confucius; society :Upper=> landowning families; Middle => peasants, Bottom => merchants, bankers, shopkeepers, service workers .  Government was controlled by those who passed the civil service examination based on Confucius's teachings.

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Charles Martel : Stopped the spread of Islam into Europe at the Battle of Tours

Battle of Tours : the site in France where Charles Martel stopped the spread of Islam by the Arab-Islamic Empire into Europe; 732AD

Makkah:  Trade center in Saudi Arabia,where the Prophet Muhammad was born in AD570; he fled from there in 622AD [ the first year of the Muslim calendar] and returned to conquer it in 630Ad

Quran : Holy book of Islam ; the word literally translates "to recite" ; contains 114 chapters; believed to be the word of God as revealed to Mohammad, presents the basic moral values.

Madinah: the city where Mohammad fled to in 622AD; there he formed the Medinah Compact in 6624AD; this was the beginnings of the organization of Islamic state

AD570: Mohammad was born

AD732 : the Battle of Tours

Ramadan: 9th month of the Muslim calendar; the faithful fast from sunrise to sunset at the end of Ramadan there is a 3 day feast

bedouins: nomadic herders, they live in tribes, lead by sheikhs

sheikhs: leaders of the tribes; advised by elders

imam:a prayer leader in Islam

jihad : holy war against non-believers in Islam; used to bring Islam to other lands

caliph: "successor" , leader of the Islamic empire; the first 4 caliphs were friends/ relatives of Mohammad - Abu Bakr - 1st caliph was Muhhamed's father-in-law

5 Pillars of Islam:  1. confession of faith "there is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his prophet"  2. Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca  3. Must give alms [Zakat] 4. Hajj = pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lifetime  5. Fast of Ramadan

Shi'ite : Sect of Islam that believes the Caliph must be a descendent of Mohammad. the job of Caliph is both political & religious. Shi'ites live in Iraq, Iran & Lebanon

Sunni: believed the Caliph was a political job and anyone could hold the office. 90% of Muslims belong to this group

Kaaba : the holiest site for Islam, a large black rock located in mecca that the Muslims must circle when they make their pilgrimage. Located in Makkah

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life on the steppes: People were nomadic groups , loosely organized into clans, warrior societies under powerful chiefs, invaded eastern Asia, the Middle east & eastern Europe

maritime location / impact on Southeast Asia: called a "crossroads" area, by the 100's Ad the area was trading with India, area of exchange of ideas and products, a large amount of cultural diffusion at an early time[ ex. Sanskrit, Hinduism, Buddhism] Straits of Malacca = greatest shipping route

archipelago: a chain of related islands example Indonesia, Philippines, Japan

Shinto : polytheistic religion of Japan, animistic in nature, spirits are called Kami

Heian: early capital of Japan[AD794] also called Kyoto. Arts flourished, governmetn was neglected & the system began to break down

Kyoto: city in Japan where the Emperor remained as the Shogun ran the country. Was the capital during the Heian Period in Japanese history

geographic Isolation : was created for Japan by the oceans until the Age of Exploration [ c. 1500] Later Japan will begin self-imposed isolation c. 1600 and the nation will remain closed to the outside world until Admiral Perry reached Tokyo in 1850.

Silla Kingdom:  Silla conquered the other two kingdoms [ Paekche & Koguryo] to unify Korea, Buddhism became the state religion

Three Kingdoms Period of Korean history when many elements of Chinese culture diffused to Korea. writing, Confucianism, Buddhism [57BC to AD668]

AD668: Silla Kingdom gain control of all of Korea

Malaysia: an area of Southeast Asia; used the famous shipping area called the Straits of Malacca
made up of a 2-fingered peninsula and a small chain of islands

Indonesia: an island chain in Southeast Asia, a crossroads in the expanding trade from China to the Arabian Peninsula

Marco Polo : the Italian that visited China during the rule of Kublai Khan, his writings increased European interest in the East. He arrived in China in 1271AD and stayed for 17 years.

Yuan Dynasty : found in China, 1st ruled by Kublai Khan , grandson of Genghis Khan, conquered Korea and tried to invade Japan twice, Marco Polo visited during this time. Kublai died in 1294 and a series of weak ruler followed him.

Khmer :Hindu-Buddhist Empire that covered Cambodia, Laos, Thailand & Vietnam, wealth was based on rice production, the rulers presented themselves as Hindu gods or future Buddhas, King Suravarman decided to honor himself and the Hindu god Vishnu by building Angkor Wat; temples covering more than a square mile, the cost of the project weakened the empire so that it could be conquered

Tang Dynasty : China 618 to 907AD, they expanded the empire,  took control of Korea, Empress Wu was the only woman ever to take the title of Emperor of China, tangs expanded roads & and canals, revived the civil service exams for government jobs [meritocracy], Buddhism became very popular, heavy taxation and invasion caused the fall of the Tang Dynasty

daimyo : is a samurai of Japan that holds a large amount of land [feudal lords]

Zen: a form of Buddhism found in Japan that stresses the ability of everyone to reach enlightenment during this lifetime

Samurai : the warrior caste in Japan

Genji : an early form of Japanese literature. Romance poetry written by Lady Shikbu Murasaki

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Mesoamerican:  term applied to the cultures that emerged in central America, area between North and South America.

Mayan Pyramids:  were flat on top, used for religious ceremonies, religious and political centers had priest-king, human sacrifices took place on top.

Inca:  Native American civilization found in Peru (Andes), eventually Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina.  Strong central government-people strictly regulated-became obedient and well disciplined- conquered by Spanish in 1533.

Why Spanish came to Americas:  an "all water route to the East", mostly searching for gold and silver.

How humans reached North America:  (1) old theory-Land bridge across Bering Straits.  (2) new theory - by boat along the Pacific Coast - Asia - Alaska - South America

Diet of Native Americans: depended on the resources found in their environment.  Diet therefore would vary from place to place.

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Aztec Empire (locate) : central Mexico to Guatemala and the Atlantic to the Pacific, government was a hierarchy-destroyed by Spanish 1521.

Olmec Empire: lowland valleys near Gulf of Mexico carved huge stone heads from basalt had division of labor, hieroglyphics, religion based on Jaguar God.

Toltec: came from the North, conquered Yucatan Penninsula

Maya: patchwork of city states and kingdoms linked by culture, politica ties and trade.

Maize: discovered by hunter-gatherers in Mexico (500 B.C.) became the basic food of Native American groups.

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Middle Passage: shipping route between west coast of Afirca and the Americas, used to bring slaves to the Americas

Decrease in Native American Population: exposed to European disease for the 1st time, millions died in first 50 years of Spanish rule; decline in Native Americans caused Spanish to bring slaves from Africa.

Sailing innovations: Prince Henry the Navigator, larger ships (caravel), lateen (triangle shaped) sails rudder moved to stern, astrolabe-altitude of sun

Control of East/west trade-controlled by Arabs(land) and Venetian as Italian merchants these 2 had a monopoly over spices.

Carter (Cortes) : 1519 landed in Mexico, conquered MontezumaII and the Aztecs- thought he and his men were gods-2 headed, 6 legged god from the sea

Magellan:1519 - sailed for Spain, 1st circumnavigation

Pizaro: 1532 - conquered the Incas and others in South America

Balboa: Spanish conquistador - Named the Pacific Ocean


Fuedal Japanese loyalty: to the Shogun before family

Isolation in Japan: was 1st geographic due to the water surrounding the islands later it was "self-imposed" for 250 years (started with the Seclusion Act of 1636)

Tokugawa Rule:  began 1603 as Shogun in Japan headquarters at Edo

Francis Xavier: 1st Jesuit missionary to Japan

Angkar Wat: Built by King Suryavarman in Khmer Empire [(Cambodia) later much of Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam] to honor Hindu God Veshnu and himself

Ottoman Empire decline: trade dried up, fell behind in military technology, local rulers broke away and became independent

Haiku: poetry (5-7-5) used to express a thought that would surprise the reader

Daimyo: large landowning samurai in feudal Japan

Shogun: military ruler in feudal Japan

Suleiman I: ruled Ottoman Empire 1520 to 1566, named "The Lawgiver" - organized Ottoman law sultan and Caliph

Ottoman Empire: Middle East, North Africa, Caucasus region between Black and Caspian seas

Mugal Empire: Sultanate (Muslim kingdom); set up in Delhi, India in 1206 - under Akbar the arts flourished.  Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal

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protectorate: colony has its own government ; but government policy is guided by an outside or foreign government

Nations of Africa NOT taken and why: LIBERIA in West Africa - est. 1822 by the US it was a republic by 1847 the US made it off limits.  ETHIOPIA: was a Christian nation

Monroe Doctrine: 1823 = US foreign policy, it stated the Americas were closed to colonization and any attempt to do so by European nations would be considered an act of war.

Boundaries of Africa: were set by the Europeans at the Conference of Berlin in 1886; they cut across traditional boundaries - created a problem for nationalism & unity when these areas became free.

British Empire: covered areas on all continents, so huge that the phrase "The sun never sets on the British Empire" was used to describe it.

Boxer Rebellion: Xenophobic rebellion against the western influence in China.  Attacked foreigners and Chinese Christians, put down by a multinational force.

Panama Revolution: Columbia rejected US offer to buy the area, 1903 people of Panama revolted with the help of the US Navy; 1 day war, Republic of Panama created & US signed treaty to build the canal

Colony: area ruled directly through colonial officials

Causes of imperialism: 1. Nationalism  2. Industrial Revolution  3. Religious fervor  [missionary work] 4. Ethnocentrism : feelings of racial/cultural superiority

US & China: Open Door Policy = tried to open China to trade with all nations - end spheres of influence - areas of exclusive trading rights set up by other nations

Spanish American War: 1800's Cuba still Spanish colony.  1898 Maine was sunk; US declared war on Spain gained Philippines & Guam

Sepoys: Hindu & Muslim soldiers in India.  Revolted over fat used to grease bullets, felt it was an insult to their religion

Sikhs: live in the Punjab area of India.  Religion is a blend of Hindu & Muslim ideas.  Want to have their own country, famous warriors wear iron bracelet, never cut their hair

Sino-Japanese War: Between China & Japan 1894, Korea revolted against China, Japan stepped in and easily defeated China.  Korea was independent but Japan controlled her trade.

Opium Wars 1842: gave Europeans control over China through a series of unequal treaties; extraterritoriality ex. Treaty of Nanking

Meiji Era: Under Emperor Mutsuhito tried to make Japan capable of competing with the west; changes: parliamentary government, strengthened military, industrialized, introduced universal education

Korea in the 1900's: 1905 Russia signed a treaty giving Japan control over Korea - 1904 War between Japan & Russia over control of the area

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WW I & Ottoman Empire: end of the Ottoman Empire,  It became the size of modern-day Turkey

Mao Zedgon: leader of  Communist Party in China

Salt March: British controlled salt mines and taxed every grain of salt sold, Indians who made their own were jailed.  1930 - Gandhi led his followers to the sea where they made their own - thousands were arrested

League of Nations Mandate: After WWI European nations were given a territory to be administered by them until they were ready for independence ; ex. British mandate over Palestine

Red Army / role of Chinese peasants:  Mao believed in the power of the Chinese peasants, the Red Army had more than 30,000 peasant troops

Muslims in Indian Independence: formed the Muslim League as a nationalist organization.  Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims, Muslim leader was Mohammed Ali Jinnah - demanded a separate state for Muslim

Zionism: belief that a homeland should be established in Palestine for the Jews.  It was Jewish Nationalism - leader Theodor Herzl

Invasion of Manchuria: Sept. 1931 = seized by Japan showed Japan's military plans to dominate the Japanese government & expand its influence abroad

Guomintang: Nationalist party in China, led by Sun Yat-sen ; then Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai-shek: China, 1925 as leader of Guomintang he conquered the war lords.  In the 1930's he tried to wipe out the Communists

Sun Yat-sen: founded the Chinese Republic 1912, 1st leader of the Goumintang
Hirohito: constitutional monarch of Japan through the depression, WWII and up into the 1980's

Jewish immigration to Palestine: Holocaust increased Jewish immigration and increased attacks on Jewish settlers, 1947 Palestine was turned over to the UN by the British, May 1948 the new nation of Israel was formed

Long March: October 1934 - Guomintang surrounded Communists in south east China, Mao broke the trap and fled 6000 miles on foot to Northwest China

Balfour Declaration: promised British help in establishing "a national homeland for the Jewish people"

Suez Canal: connects the Red Sea & Med Sea, from early 1900's to 1956 was controlled by England.  July 1956, Nasser nationalized the canal, Nations invaded, the US made them withdraw, today the canal is controlled by Egypt

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Boycott:  refusal to buy

Delasination:  Removal of salt from sea water to make fresh water

Sri Lanka:  Island off the southeast corner of India

Kashmir:  Area of India; 1947 ruler was Hindu; people were Moslem.  Both India and Pakistan want the area because it is the head waters of the Indus & Ganges Rivers.  The two nations have fought over the area

Cultural Revolution: Launched in 1966 by Mao [Radical Communists] to stop the influence of Deng Xiaopeng [Pragmatists/Communists]  Young people formed the Red Guard & insisted everyone follow the "Little Red Book" [Mao's teachings]

Great Leap Forward: cooperative merged into government controlled Communes, stressed human labor over technology - by 1960 it was an evident failure, food shortages & peasant resistance [China]

Bangladesh: arch 1971 India supported East Pakistan and it became the independent nation of Bangladesh

Gandhi Family: 3 generations of same family as Prime Minister of India  1) Jawaharlal Nehru;  2) his daughter of India Gandhi; 3) her son Rajir Gandhi.  Mother and son were assassinated

Satyagrha: "Truth Force" - term used by Gandhi to describe the nonviolent protest he led.  Techniques used:  boycott = making their own homespun

4 Modernizations: stressed need for improvement in agriculture, Industry , Science = defense.  Under Deng Era in China - 1976 responsibility system family farm individual plots, government got some of what family produced family kept rest

Pakistan: 1947 Pakistan was created for the Muslims of the subcontinent.  It had two wings "East" and "West" 1971 - West Pakistan becomes Pakistan - military rule and instability

Taiwan: 1949 Chinese Nationalists under Caing Kai-shek set up their government on this island when Mao forced them from mainland China.  Still claim to be the legal government in China
Domino theory: US foreign policy belief that if one Southeast Asian land fell to communism, its neighbors would fall to communism.  Cause of US involvement in Vietnam late 1960's

Tiananmen Square: 1980's students and intellectuals in Beijing demanded a more open political system - June 1989 rallied for democracy and reforms in Beijing - government sent in tanks and troops 1000's killed or wounded

Pacifist: a person opposing violence as a way to settle a dispute

Civil disobedience: refusal to buy

Poverty in Bangladesh: densely populated rural, high utility rate, life expectancy low, PCI $150 a year, severe flooding, rule by junta

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Biafra: Nigeria had 250 ethnic groups and 395 languages when it got its independence in 1960.  In the mid-1960's, ethnic conflict drove the Ibo group to declare the independent Republic of Biafra in the eastern part of Nigeria.  Civil war resulted and the Ibo lost

Ibo: the tribe in Nigeria that tried to gain their independence, about 2 million died of hunger because of the fighting

Causes of famine in Africa: hindered economic development, growing populations, a lack of capital, overdependence on cash crops, desertification

Civil Wars: these have marked Africa since independent nations emerged.  Many have political borders that were drawn by the Europeans, these cut across tribal and ethnic lines, dividing people of similar customs and faiths.  Old ruling families and ethnic groups have struggled for power causing many of the civil wars.  1970's many countries were ruled by the military or one-party dictatorships

Goals of Nelson Mendela: Leader of the African National Congress [ANC], elected President of South Africa in 1994, he wants to reconcile racial and ethnic groups raising the standard of living for his people and bridging the social & economic gap that exists in many areas

Apartheid: Legalized racism and racial separation in South Africa.  Put in place by a ruling white minority of British or Africaner descent.  It denied basic freedoms to the Black majority and other minorities in the country.  ANC demanded reforms of this system and 1962 Nelson Mendela the leader was jailed.  From 1960 to 1980's the rest of the world isolated South Africa and this hurt its economy.  Finally with the aid of archbishop Desmond Tutu and nonviolent means the segregation laws were removed and the first election open to all races was held in 1994.

Cash Crop: is a monoculture, where people raise one crop for sale.  If the world demand or other problems arise the entire economy of the nation will fail

Subsistence: means you raise just enough for your family and nothing is left for sale.  Many people in Africa are subsistence farmers

Jomo Kenyatta: Nationalist leader in Kenya, he became president of the country in 1947.  His movement for independence was called the Kenya African Union

African National Congress: Black nationalist movement in South Africa that demanded reforms, 1960's leader was Nelson Mendela.  Now it is a powerful political party in South Africa

Pan-Africanism: is a movement among African leaders to promote cooperation among African nations.  Its major goal is unity for Africa

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Fundamentalism:  Adherence to traditional religious values; reactionary in nature

Camp David Accords: 1977 = meeting between Egypt's president Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin.  US Sec. of State Kissinger and President Carter were able to use this meeting to set the basis for an Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty

Arab League: a form of Pan-Arabism aimed at building closer cultural and political ties among Arabs.  It was formed in 1945 and its mission was to unify the Arab world

Kibbutzim: collective farms in Palestine set up by Jewish settlers

Cartels: a groups of businesses formed to regulate production and prices among its members.  OPEC is a cartel over oil

Transjordan: Present-day Jordan.  A largely desert kingdom who gained independence from Britain

Golda Mier: woman Prime minister of Israel, 1969 to 1974

Tansu Ciller: Turkey, first woman prime minister of an Arab country, 1990's

Nasser: after a coup took over Egypt, he nationalized the Suez Canal, set out to modernize Egypt and built up his military to confront Israel.  In power during the 1950's

6-Day War: After just 6 days, Israel tripled her land holdings including the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, Golan Heights and East Jerusalem

US Embassy 1979: in Iran, was seized by Iranian fundamentalists.  The Americans were held hostage until January 1981
Pan-Arabism: a movement to unify the Arab world

Suez Crisis: Nasser nationalized the canal, fearing its closure, Great Britain, France and Israel invaded.  The US, UN and USSR ended the conflict

Resources in the Middle East: oil is the most valuable to the rest of the world; but the lack of water makes it the most valuable resource to the people of the Middle East

Yasir Arafat: Chairman of the PLO [Palestine Liberation Organization] in 1969.  It was a group of Arab refugees.  Leader in terrorism until he renounced it in 1988.  1993 he and the Israeli agreed to recognize each other and to the evidential self-rule for Palestinians on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.  By 1996 they had gained significant self-rule and Arafat was their 1st president.

Sadat: President of Egypt that signed the first peace agreement with the Israeli.  He was assassinated because of it.

Khomeini: Fundamentalist religious leader that threw out the Shah of Iran and set up an Islamic Republic there.  Also responsible for the seizure of the US Embassy in Iran in 1979

Begin: Israeli prime minister who signed the first peace agreement with Egypt.  He was assassinated because of it

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Fidel Castro: The Communist leader that took over Cuba in the 1950's.  He ousted Batista

Panama Canal Treaty: returned the canal to Panama in 1999.  The US will maintain its security and it is to be open to all nations

Zapatistas:  rebels in Chiapas area of Mexico demanding equal rights for Native Americans.  Named after Emilio Zapata, an early figure for democracy in Mexican history

Sandinistas: The socialists that controlled Nicaragua in the 1980's

Contras: The rebels that fought the Sandinistas in Nicaragua.  They were illegally supported by the CIA and this brought on the Irangate scandal in the US

Social structures in Latin America: A small elite control the government, the land and all the wealth.  The largest segment of the society is poor, landless peasants.  The middle class is so small it really doesn't exist

Campesinos: means poor, peasant, farm laborers in Latin America

Liberals: The political parties in Latin America that want to help the poor peasants

Ruling Elites: The wealthy in Latin America that control the government and all the wealth

Bay of Pigs: A failed invasion of Cuba of ex-patriots staged out of Miami.  It was backed by the US government and the CIA.  A major cause of strained relations between Castro and The US

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement:  An agreement between the US, Mexico & Canada to eliminate trade restrictions, like tariffs and quotas, between the three nations

Standard of living in Latin America: The vast majority of the people live in poverty

Leftists: People that believe in Communist or Marxist political theories

Conservatives: Political parties or individuals that believe in keeping the "status quo" [keeping thins as they are; no changes]

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Free Trade:  Allowing goods to cross the borders between nations without tariffs or restrictions [ex. NAFTA]

Green Revolution:  The introduction of modern technology in agriculture to the underdeveloped nations of the world; so they can feed their people

Universal Declaration of Human Rights : Issued by the UN in 1948, it is the goal of equality and freedom for all people of the world

Trade deficit: It is when a nation buys more from other nations than it sells.  It can also be called an Unfavorable Balance of Trade.  [ex. US has a trade deficit with Japan]

Trade Surplus: The opposite of a trade deficit, when a nation sells more to the other nations than it buys.  Also called a favorable balance of trade.

Monoculture: When a nation's economy and lifestyle is based on the production of only one product or crop

Interdependency: The nations of the world are linked together esp. in the area of the economy and trade.  They need each other to survive

Population increase: It is the percentage above the death rate, that a nation's population grows

Multinational: This means a corporation or organization that operates in more than one nation

Globalism: is an awareness and concern for the welfare of the entire planet

Tribunal: is a court of law where there is no jury, the judges [usually three] make a ruling based on the evidence presented.  Tribunal have been used in "war crime's trials

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Geography:  Man's adaption to all sorts of conditions both natural and manmade

Geographic Grid : Imaginary division of the earth to make specific locations possible  lines of latitude & longitude that allow you to locate any place on earth.

I.M.R. : Infant mortality rate, the number of infants that will die in a nation before  their first birthday.

G.N.P. : Gross National Product, all the goods & services produced in a country in one year.

P.C.I. : What the average person in a country will earn in one year.

Extended Family:  More than one generation living under the same roof

Tribe: a group of people with a common ancestor, customs, & traditions

Land formation : a distinctive feature of the earth's surface in a given place

Climate:  The average conditions of the atmosphere in a given place over a long period of time.

Weather:  The conditions of the atmosphere in a given place over a short period of time.

Imperialism : a stronger nation taking over a weaker one.

Nationalism : strong feeling for your country.

Ethnocentric: Negative form of Nationalism, where you think your nation is the best and all others are inferior.

Repression:  The taking away of basic human rights

Cartography:  The art of drawing maps.

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